Sacramento is the capital of the State of California and is located at the confluence of the Sacramento and American River, it is known as the “river city.” The territory in which Europeans established settlements, was the traditional land of the Maidu Peoples. In 1839, the first colony was established by John Sutter and it was known as “Nueva Helvetia” (New Switzerland).1
In 1840, Sutter built a palisaded trading post known as “Sutter's Fort.” When gold was discovered in 1848, Sutter's settlement evolved into a trading and mining epicentre. Six years later, the Sacramento State Legislature officially moved to Sacramento in 1854 and named the state capital in 1879.2
Due to Sacramento's location on two rivers, the city was prone to floods. In 1850, Sacramento experienced its first major flood, which happened again only two years later. The floods caused major damage in Sacramento which led to a suggestion of a project to raise the city above the flood level in 1853. The project was not officially accepted until 1862 when another flood devastated the city. Today, Sacramento is referred to as one of the state's oldest incorporated communities.3
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