North-West Territory (1825)
The Northwest Territories' southern border runs along the Canadian provinces of BC, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. Prior to 1870, this area was referred to as the North-West Territory, a single territory located northwest of Rupert's Land; it would later be separated into three distinct territories.1 The most recent border transformation was the separation of Nunavut Territory, which happened from 1993-99.2 This was due to the large Inuit population which populated the eastern part of the territory, but not the west.3 Nunavut's creation is seen mostly as a success for the Inuit, as they now largely manage themselves with their own territorial government.4
In this despatch, you can read about the boundaries of the North-West Territory, which then comprised of the Rocky Mountains, the Russian territories, the Arctic Ocean, and the United States.
Today, the population of the Northwest Territories is roughly 52 percent Indigenous.5 Much of the territory is within the borders of the historical numbered Treaties 8 and 11.6 Treaty 8 was signed on June 1, 1899, and covers only the southernmost part of the territory, while Treaty 11 was signed in 1921, and covers a majority of the territory.7 The Dene, the Inuvialuit, and the M├ętis were the first to live in this vast territory; the colonizers did not arrive until just over a century ago.8 The Northwest Territories was established without any consultation with the Indigenous population.9
Mentions of this place in the documents