No. 26
15 June 1858
My Lord,
1. In reporting the other day 1 the result of my observations on the Gold regions of Fraser's River, I omitted to mention several things, which I ought to have communicated to you.
2. In consequence of that omission I have now to state that during my stay at the Falls of Fraser's River, IappointedManuscript image appointed Mr Richard Hicks, a respectable Englishman engaged in mining pursuits there, as Revenue Officer for the District of Fort Yale, at a salary of £40 a year to be paid out of the Revenue of the country.
3. On the arrival of our party at "Hill's Bar," the white Miners were in a state of great alarm on account of a serious affray which had just occurred with the native Indians, who mustered under arms, in a tumultuous manner, and threatened to make a clean sweep of the whole body of miners assembled there.
4. The quarrel arose out of a series of provocations on both sides, and from the jealousyofManuscript image of the savages who naturally feel annoyed at the large quantities of gold taken from their country by the white miners.
5. I lectured them soundly about their conduct, on that occasion, and took the leader in the affray, an Indian, highly connected in their way, and of great influence, resolution and energy of character, into the Government service, and found him exceedingly useful in settling other Indian difficulties. 2
6. I also spoke with great plainess of speech, to the white miners, who were nearly all foreigners, representing almost every nation in Europe. I refused to grant them any rights of occupation to the soil, andtoldManuscript image told them distinctly that Her Majesty's Government ignored their very existence in that part of the country, which was not open for the purpose of settlement, and they were permitted to remain there merely on sufferance; that no abuses would be tolerated, and that the Laws would protect the rights of the Indian, no less than those of the white man.
7. I also appointed Mr George Perrier a British Subject, as Justice of the Peace for the District of "Hill's Bar," and directed the Indians to apply to him for redress, whenever any of them suffer wrong, at the hands of white men, and also cautioned them against taking the Law into their own hands, and seeking justice according to their own barbarous customs.
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8. I also appointed Indian Magistrates, who are to bring forward when required any man of their several Tribes, who may be charged with offences against the Laws of the country, an arrangement which will prevent much evil; but without the exercise of unceasing vigilance on the part of the Government, Indian troubles will sooner or later occur.
9. The recent defeat of Colonel Steptoe's detachments of United States troops consisting of Dragoons and Infantry, by the Indians of Oregon Territory, has greatly increased the natural audacity of the savage, and the difficulty of managing them. It will require I fear the nicest tact to avoid a disastrous Indian war.
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10. I transmit herewith a hand book and map of the Gold region of Fraser's River, which will prove useful as a reference.
I have etc.
James Douglas
Governor
Documents enclosed with the main document (not transcribed)
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Newspaper clipping, "Another Indian War," Olympia Pioneer and Democrat, Washington Territory, 28 May 1858, reporting defeat of Colonel Steptoe by Indigenous forces.
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A.C. Anderson, Notes in Reference to the Routes of Communication with the Gold Region on Fraser's River, printed with map and a compendium, "Chinook Jargon"; preface dated Cathlamet, Washington Territory, 3 May 1858. Note on above:
N.B. This vocabulary [i.e. "Chinook Jargon"] is an addition of the publisher's for which I am no wise responsible. It is miserably incorrect.
A.C.A.

Not having had the opportunity of correcting the proofs I have made [marked] some slight oversights of the Engraver & printer in ink upon this Copy. A.C.A.
Fort Victoria V.I.
14 June 1858
Documents enclosed with the main document (transcribed)
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In 7830/58
4
Pioneer and Democrat
May 28th 1858
Washington Territory
ANOTHER INDIAN WAR!
⎯⎯⎯⎯
STARTLING INTELLIGENCE
⎯⎯⎯⎯
Defeat of Col. Steptoe!!
⎯⎯⎯⎯
FIFTY-THREE MEN KILLED!!
⎯⎯⎯⎯
“Just as we are getting our paper ready for the press, (Thursday afternoon), an express arrived from the head-quarters of Col. Steptoe, in the Simcoe valley, with dispatches for Lieut. Col. Casey, and letters to his Excellency Gov. McMullin, informing them of the defeat, on the 16th inst., at the first crossing of Snake river, about 30 miles above its junction with the Columbia, of the command of Col. S. The command consisted of 5 companies, or 400 men. The Indians are reported as having been 1500 strong, and composed of the Snake, Palouse, and other tribes. The action resulted in 3 officers and 50 men killed. Two of the officers killed are Capt. Wynders and Lieut. Gasden. The Indians took two howitzers which belonged to the command, and all but sixty pack animals. In fact, so complete is said to have been the route, that the officer in command was compelled to fall back with the utmost precipitation. The battle took place while the regulars were in the act of crossing the river.
Col. Steptoe proceeded to the Snake country peaceably to treat with them, or proceed to hostilities if necessary. The object of his visit was probably of a similar character with that of Maj. Haller, some three years since, and which resulted in a like unfortunate manner. Maj. H., our readers will remember, proceeded thence with a force of 104 men, and in a peaceable manner demanded the murdered of the emigrants of 1854. The result was that instead of bringing to justice these depredators and murders, he brought home the bodies of 23 of his command— killed or wounded — on litters. ”
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Appendix ‸ No26
In 7830
58
NOTES.
IN REFERENCE TO
THE ROUTES OF COMMUNICATION
WITH THE
Gold Region on Frazer’s River,
EXPLANATORY of the ACCOMPANYING MAP.
⎯⎯⎯⎯
/S/
Frazer’s River discharges itself into the Gulf of Georgia, a little to the north of the 49th parallel. The head waters of its principal branch interlock with those of the Colmubia and the Athabasca. At the distance of 160 miles from its mouth, it is joined by Thompson's River, a large stream flowing from the eastward. As indicated in the map, the Cascade range of mountains — which may be viewed as a continuation of the Sierra Nevada — ceases at this point. Here, and in its immediate vicinity, the diggings which are now creating so much excitement, have been in
2348
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EXPLANATORY NOTES.

progress since last Summer; though their richness, now apparently so well authenticated, was not ascertained till more lately. There are two distinct lines of approach to these mines: one by the direct route through Frazer’s River; the other by way of the Columbia River, by Portland and the Dalles, and thence with pack animals through the trails used until recently by the Hudson’s Bay Company, for their communications and for the transport of supplies for the interior.
These routes will be separately considered.
Route via Fort Langley.

Fort Langley, the lowest post of the Hudson's Bay Company on Frazer’s River, is situated on the left* bank, about twenty-five miles from the entrance. Thus far the stream is navigable for vessels of considerable burthen, the precaution of sounding or buoying the sand-heads at the entrance being first adopted, in the absence of a qualified pilot. The ascent, however, short as the distance is, is rather tedious for a sailing vessel, as the river is
*In this, and all other instances where the like distinctions may be employed, it is with reference to the descending stream
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EXPLANATORY NOTES.
5

is ad-locked, and the winds consequently situated and baffling.
Fort Hope is a small post situated near the mouth of the Que-que-alla River, which falls in sixty-nine miles above Langley. Thence to the foot of the “Falls” is twelve miles further. From that point to Thompson’s River Forks is a distance of fifty-four to fifty-five miles, by the travelled route.
It is questionable how far above Langley a vessel of any considerable draught could readily be taken; but from that post to Fort Hope there seems to be no room to doubt that an efficient steamer of light draught could be advantageously navigated; and, indeed, for some miles higher up. Above the Falls, however, the obstacles to steam navigation, and especially at the higher stages of the water, I judge to be very serious.
Hitherto, bateaux of about three tons burthen have been employed by the Hudson’s Bay Company, for transport below the Falls — a slow method when the water is high, as the ascent can then be effected only by warping along shore, with the aid of Indian canoes to pass the lines. By this tedious process, an ascent was made during the freshet of 1848,
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6
EXPLANATORY NOTES.

to the foot of the Falls, in eight days; under ordinary circumstances, it would occupy five.
There is a trail (indicated in the sketch as “Douglas Portage”) from the upper Teet village, below the Falls, to Spuz-zum, above the Falls, the lowest village of the Saw-mee-nas, or Couteau. It is much longer, but not so rough as the passage of the river bank, which is for some distance extremely broken. Both these portages are on the right bank.
The series of rapids called the “Falls” is about three miles in length. There is no such abrupt descent as the name implies. At low water these rapids may be ascended with light craft, by making portages; but at the higher stages of the water they present a difficulty almost insurmountable. During the summer season, the rocky shores of the “Falls” are thronged by Indians from the lower country, who resort thither for the salmon fishery. A ceaseless feud, I may here mention, prevails between the Couteaux and the lower Indians, who differ from each other widely in many respects.
At Spuz-zum, six miles above the Falls, the river is crossed to the left bank, where is the terminus of a horse trail, opened in 1847 and
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EXPLANATORY NOTES.

7
1848, across the mountains from the Similkameen country, but abandoned afterwards as ineligible, chiefly on account of the difficulties of the Falls.
This trail follows the river to Ke-que-loose, six miles further. At this point is the grave of a servant of the Hudson’s Bay Company, who, in 1848, was found shot near the encampment, under circumstances which justified the belief that he died by his own voluntary act. A large cedar statue, of Indian Workmanship, and a small enclosure, mark the spot. The banks of the river immediately above this are very rugged; consequently the trail ascends the height, (some two thousand feet or more), crosses it, and descends upon Anderson’s River, at the forks of which two bridges were formerly in existence.
The Similk-ameen trail continues inland hence; that leading to the forks of Thompson's River (indicated by a trail-line in the sketch) diverges, and after a few miles travel again strikes Frazer’s River, at Tqua-yowm, a populous village six miles above Ke-que-loose and situated at the mouth of Anderson’s River.
Thence to the Forks of Thompson’s River,
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EXPLANATORY NOTES.

where the miners were last at work, is estimated at thirty-three and a half miles, through a hilly road, in places very stony and impassable for loaded horses without a large amount of labor in its improvement. Several streams fall in between Tqua-yowm upwards a marked change in the character of the scenery takes place; through rugged, it is less densely timbered than the lower country, and shows every evidence of a drier climate. The vicinity of Tqua-yowm itself is rather picturesque; but, what is of more importance, it enjoys a prolific salmon fishery during the season.
From the Forks of Thompson’s River, horse roads extend in both directions — up Frazer’s River, and along Thompson’s River — as indicated in the map.
I will now proceed to point out some of the difficulties which embarass this route, and which, until some better system be organized than at present exists, are deserving certainly of serious consideration.
Assuming the miner to have reached the foot of the Falls by batteau or other conveyance,3Manuscript image
EXPLANATORY NOTES.
9

(and let me here remark that there is no practicable way of reaching this point from Fort Langley except by water), the more formidable impediments to his progress are still in advance. Horses are not procurable here; nor, if procurable, is the country suited for their subsistence. The navigation of the Falls at high water cannot be accomplished; nor, indeed, is the upper portion of the river to be navigated without difficulty at that stage. At the lower stage, these difficulties are so far modified that they may be overcome by portages; but it is to be premised that a certain amount of skill and experience in canoe navigation — which every one is not supposed to possess — is a necessary condition of the undertaking. The alternative is to proceed on foot; but my previous notes will have shown that the trail is a rough one, full of painful inequalities. It would, therefore, be impracticable to convey in this way more than a very limited amount of provisions, to say nothing of tools and other necessaries for mining operations.
From Fort Hope there is a horse trail across the mountains: but no horses are to be procured there, as indeed not any are kept. All Manuscript image 10
EXPLANATORY NOTES.

these animals, when required for transport are brought from across the mountain range, and return forthwith. Moreover, the Fort Hope trail does not strike the mining region, but unites with the trail from the Columbia valley, to be presently considered. I subjoin a resumé of the distances by the direct trail:
miles

Mouth of Frazer’s River to Fort Langley ……. 25
 To Que-que-alla River ………….. 69
 To Falls ………………………. 12
Falls Rapids ………………………. 3
 To Spuz-zum …………………. 6
 To Ke-que-loose ………………..6
 To Tqua-yowm ………………..6
 To Forks of Thompson’s River ……. 33 ½
— 54 ½

Total …………………… 160 ½

Memorandum of Distances by the Fort Hope Route.

miles.

Fort Hope to the top of Munson’s Mountain.12
Across the Valley to Campement du Chevreuil,
 (summit of the Cascade range) ….10
To Lake near height of land in Blackeye’s
 Portage ……………………….25
To Tseistn, or Campement des Femmes …..20
To Rocher de la Biche ………………..20
 Total, to the junction with Dalles Trail .. — 87
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EXPLANATORY NOTES.
11

From Rocher de la Biche to forks of Thompson’s
 River
…………………….. 85
——

 Total, Fort Hope to Forks Thompson’s River 172
Mouth of Fraser’s River to Fort Hope …….. 84
——

 Distance via Fort Hope — Total ………. 256
West
12
N. B. — The above distances, as far as Rocher de La Biche, are noted according to the encampments it is necessary to make, in order to secure scanty pasturage in the mountain for pack animals.
Route via Columbia River and the Dalles.

Every facility of Steam Navigation exists between Portland and the Dalles. The transit between Portland and the Dalles. The transit between these two points is performed in part of two days, the intervening night being passed at the Cascades, where travelers are well accommodated. An attempt is being made to extend steamboat navigation as far as the Priest’s Rapids, sixty miles above Walla-Walla, and one hundred and ninety from the Dalles; but the success of this project is thus far undecided.
With horses there are two routes to the Priest’s Rapids: One crossing the Columbia River at the Dalles, passing over the dividing ridge to the Yackama Valley, and continuing
238
13

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EXPLANATORY NOTES.

across until the Columbia is again struck at the point in question, where the Columbia is recrossed to its left bank.
(N. B. — This trail in crossing the Yackama Valley, joins the trail which parties from Puget’s Sound, crossing by the Nachess Pass, would necessarily follow. The necessity of crossing to the left bank at the Priest’s Rapids, arises from the impracticable nature of the country on the right side, between that point and Okinagan.)
The other route is by following the left bank of the Columbia from the Dalles to Walla-Walla, crossing the Snake River at its mouth, and thence continuing along the Columbia to the Priest’s Rapids. (N. B. — There are several modifications of the latter portion of this route, some of which are shorter; but I instance this for simplicity.)
The first described route is much the shorter, as the Great Bend of the Columbia River is cut off by it. But the double crossing of the Columbia is a serious obstacle; and the Yackama River, when high, is a troublesome impediment.
For this reason, I should prefer the longer route by Walla-Walla; and the more so, as it Manuscript image
EXPLANATORY NOTES.
13

is passable at all seasons, which the other is not, owing to snow in the mountain.
There is good grass by both routes.
From the Priest’s Rapids the Indian trail is followed up some twenty-five miles, when it strikes off the river, and enters the Grande Coulée, an extraordinary ravine, the origin of which has been a matter of much speculation. A portion of it is approximately sketched on the map. The bottom of this ravine is very smooth, and affords excellent traveling; good encampments are found at regular intervals. After following it for about sixty miles, the trail strikes off for the Columbia, at a point a few miles beyond a small lake, called by the voyageurs, Le Lac a l’Eau Bleue.
(N. B. — It is necessary to encamp at this lake. There is a small stream twenty-five miles or so before reaching the lake, which is another regular encampment; and again another streamlet about thirty miles short of that last mentioned, where it would likewise be necessary to encamp. This would be the first encampment in the Grande Coulée after leaving the Columbia.
I cannot recall any encamping
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EXPLANATORY NOTES.

grounds, other than these three, in this portion of the road.)
Striking off from the point mentioned, in a direction about N.N.W., the trail reaches the Columbia a few miles above Fort Okinagan, which Post is called twenty-five miles from the Grande Coulée. Ferrying at the Fort, (the horses being swum), the trail ascends the Okinagan River, cutting points here and there, as shown in the sketch. At about sixty miles from the post is the Similk-a-meen Fork. The Okinagan is crossed just above the junction. This crossing is narrow, and at the ordinary stage of the water can be forded with ease; at a higher stage, a canoe is hired. There is usually a pretty large concourse of Indians at this point during the salmon season. It is good policy to supply the chief with a little tobacco, to smoke with his followers. Good will is thus cheaply secured.
From the Forks, the trail ascends the Similk-a-meen; but as the lower part of that river, where it breaks into the Okinagan Valley, is very rugged, it is advisable to ascend the Okinagan some miles, and along the lakes, by the main road towards Kamloops. A trail then branches off, as by the sketch, and ascends
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EXPLANATORY NOTES.
15

the hills towards the Similk-ameen. After proceeding some distance, there is a small lake, affording a good encampment (called in the map “Crow Encampment.”) Continuing thence, the trail falls on the Similk-a-meen above the obstacles referred to. The valley of the Similk-a-meen abounds in good pasture. Except during the freshets, the stream is readily fordable; and the trail accordingly is made to cross it frequently at such seasons, whereby several hills and some stony places are avoided. During the freshets, the left bank is followed without interruption.
At the Red-Earth Fork the Similk-a-meen is left. The trail, following up a branch of this valley watered by the Red-Earth stream, etc., crosses the height of land which divides the water-shed of Frazer’s River from that of the Columbia, and descends towards Nicholas’ Lake. A few miles before reaching the lake there is a cut-off, indicated in the sketch, which strikes Nicholas’ River below the outlet of the lake. This river is crossed to its right bank, and followed about thirty-five miles, when it is recrossed, (by fording in both cases, at the ordinary stage of the water); and the point is cut, seventeen miles, to Nica-o-meenManuscript image16
EXPLANATORY NOTES.

on Thompson’s River. (N. B. Besides the advantage of this cut-off in point of shortness, the right bank of the stream is very steep and broken between the lower crossing and the junction of the stream with Thompson's River at Thlik-um-chee-nâ.)
Nicâ-o-meen is the commencement of the mining region, as so far declared. Thence it is thirteen miles to the Forks of Thompson’s River.
I now append an estimate of the distances by this route, which will be found, I trust, reliable; and I also add a memorandum of the encampments which a party with pack animals might expect to make.
ESTIMATE OF DISTANCES.
miles.

From the Dalles across the Yackama Valley,
to the crossing place above Priest’s Rapids .. 125
Five days’ march with packs.
BY WALLA-WALLA
Dalles to Walla-Walla …………….. 130
To crossing place above Priest’s Rapids. 60-190
Eight days’ march with packs.
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EXPLANATORY NOTES.
17

From the Priest’s Rapids crossing to the
 Grande Coulée ……………….. 25
 Along the Grande Coulée ………… 60
 To Okinagan …………………. 25-110
From Okinagan to Forks of Similk-a-meen. 60
 To Red-Earth Fork ……………… 90
 To Cut-off near Nicholas Lake …….. 55
 To Lower Crossing Nicholas’ River ….. 35
 Across to Nicâomeen ……………. 17
 To Forks of Thompson’s River …….. 13-270
——

Total distance from the Priest’s Rapid Crossing
 place to Thompson’s River Forks …….. 380
Distance from the Dalles by the several routes:
Yackamâ Route ……………… 125x380==405
Walla-Walla Route …………… 190x380==570
Estimate of March from the Priest’s Rapids
Crossing to the Forks of Thompson’s River.

1st — Encampment on the Columbia, near where the trail leaves the River.
2nd — On first rivulet in Grande Coulée.
3rd — On second rivulet in do.
4th — At the small lake in do.
6th — At Okinagan.
7th — Rivière à la Grise, or Rat Lake.
8th — Upper Bonaparte’s River.
9th — Forks of Similk-a-meen.
10th — Crow Encampment.
11th, 12th and 13th — Along the Similk-a-meen.
  2
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EXPLANATORY NOTES.

14th — At, or beyond. Red-Earth Fork.
15th — Near Rocher de la Biche.
16th — Cut-off near Nicholas’ Lake.
17th — Upon Nicholas’ River.
18th — Nickâ-o-meen.
19th — Forks of Thompson’s River.
 Or, 27 days from the Dalles, via Walla-Walla.
It may be noted here that, throughout the distance, there are no obstacles to an easy march, beyond those that I have endeavored to note. Pasture and water are plentiful, and fuel, for the greater part of the distance, likewise abounds. Along the Columbia, the country is bare of timber; elsewhere the valleys are clear; the hills sparsely timbered with the Colville Red Pine, (pinus ponderosá).— There are numerous tracts of very fertile soil.
As already mentioned, there are two trails across the Cascade range for the neighborhood of the Similk-a-meen country: one striking to Ke-que-loose and Shuz-zum, above the Fall; the other at Fort Hope, below the Falls. The former was abandoned in 1849, chiefly on account of the difficulties of the Falls. As it approaches Frazer’s River, too, it is extremely rugged. The Fort Hope route is used by the Hudson’s Bay Company for the transport Manuscript image
EXPLANATORY NOTES
19

between Frazer’s River and the several inland districts. The route over the mountains is short, but rugged, and pasture is scarce. It is of course impassable with horses, except after the melting of the snows late in June, and until about the middle of October. Both these routes, as will be seen by the sketch, unite with the Dalles trail at different points.
______
MEMORANDA AND NOTES

On several subjects connected with the Mining Region.
The gold found in the Couteau country has so far been procured chiefly from dry diggings. It is “coarse” gold, and its quality stands high in the market. Considerable quantities are reported to have been dug by the natives, who, so far, appear to have been the chief miners.
The Niicoutameens* or Couteaux, are numerous. They, and other branches of the great
4   *Couteaux, or Knives, is merely a corruption by the Canadian voyageurs of the native name. The Lower Indians call them Saw-mee-nâ; neither party recognizing the foreign name.
242
17
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EXPLANATORY NOTES.

/ch/
18
She-whap-muck tribe, inhabit the banks of Frazer’s River, from a little above the Falls to the frontier of New Caladonia. Their extreme poverty formerly made them roguish, and their reputation was bad; but my own experience of their character was nowise unfavourable. — These Indians subsist chiefly on salmon, and various kinds of roots and berries. Their salmon they cure by splitting and drying, either in the smoke or sun.
The Indians between Fort Langley and the
/i/
19
Falls, known as Hart-lins, Pal-lalks, Teets, &c. according to the villages they inhabit, differ widely from the Couteaux, both in habits and Language. They are ingenious and thrifty; and having said this, it is about all I can say in their favor. They are, however, not indisposed towards whites, and, considerately treated, will doubtless remain so.
As before mentioned, the upper and lower Indians have a standing feud, which is kept alive by a treacherous murder every now and then, as occasion presents.
The miner visiting these regions, will find no native resources, beyond what the river supplies. Land animals are scarce, and withal so much hunted as to be extremely shy. Salmon
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EXPLANATORY NOTES.
21

can usually be bought very cheaply; but as there is no salt, save what may be imported, there is no way of curing the fish but by the Indian method. At Ska-oose, below the Forks, is a good sturgeon fishery; and elsewhere, in the eddies, these fish may be caught. A strong line with some large cod hooks might be a useful addition to the miner’s equipment. Set lines are an efficient way of catching these fish: the bait a small fish; or what is better when procurable, a lamprey-eel. There are Trout in the streams; and on the Dalles communication, grouse of various kinds, sage hens, and other fowl are generally abundant.
In ascending Fraser’s River, mosquitoes are very numerous during the summer season; and as the sea-breeze is rarely felt, the air is extremely sultry. Near the Tchae-tse-sum River, below Fort Hope, the mosquitoes suddenly cease, and thence upwards the river is free of these troublesome pests.
The regular freshets begin at the latter end of April, and last during May and June. — About the 15th of June may be regarded as the culminating point; and by the middle of July the waters are generally greatly subsided. There is rarely a freshet of much consequence
243
20

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EXPLANATORY NOTES.

at any other season; but this sometimes happens; and I have known a sudden freshet from heavy rains, in October raise the river beyond the summer limit.
Snow begins to fall in the mountains early in October. In July there is still snow for a short distance on the summit of the Fort Hope trail, but not to impede the passage of horses. From the middle of October, however, to the middle of June, this track is not to be depended upon for transport with pack animals.
The summer climate about the Fork is dry, and the heat is great. During winter, the thermometer indicates occasionally from 20° to 30° of cold below zero of Fahrenheit; but such severe cold seldom lasts on the upper parts of Frazer’s River for more than three days; the thermometer will then continue to fluctuate between zero and the freezing-point, until, possibly, another interval of cold arrives.
But the winters are extremely capricious throughout these regions, and no two resemble each other very closely. In general the snow does not fall deep enough along the banks of the main streams, to preclude winter traveling with pack animals. The quality of the pasture is such (a kind of bunch grass in
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EXPLANATORY NOTES.
23

most places) that animals feed well at all seasons. There are many spots between the Similkameen Valley and Okinagan that are specially favorable for winter ranches. In some, the snow never lies, however deep it may be around.
The country, from the mouth of Frazer’s River up to the Falls, is thickly wooded, mountainous, and impassable, so to speak, for man or beast. The river becomes more contracted above Fort Hope. Above the Falls, as far as Tquâ-yowm, the character of the country continues to resemble the same distance below. At Tquâ-yowm, however, as already noticed, a change takes place, and the evidences of a drier climate begin to appear. These continue to become more marked as we approach the Forks. At Thlik-um-chee-na, or the Little Fork, and upwards, rattle-snakes, wormwood and the cactus (prickly-pear), characterize the scene; and some of these attributes extend thence downward for some distance.
At this point, (Thlik-um-chee-nâ, the junction of Nicholas’ River with Thompson’s River), the Horse Region may be said fairly to commence. Hence, to the frontiers of New Manuscript image
24
EXPLANATORY NOTES.

Caledonia, northward, and southward to the Pampas of Mexico, this useful animal is the best servant of man. Horses, however, are dear luxuries (comparatively speaking) in this quarter. At the Dalles, and around Walla-Walla, they are more numerous, and may be bought at very moderate rates.
In conclusion, I would suggest to every miner, by which road soever he may travel to the Couteau mines, to supply himself well beforehand, as he can depend upon little in that region, save what is imported by himself or others.
Footnotes
  1. = Douglas to Stanley, 10 June 1858, No. 24, 7828, CO 60/1, p. 29.
  2. Identify person? No newspapers. Prevost report, or Waddington??
  3. The word "conveyance" is broken over two pages, for the purpose of transcription it appears as one word before the page break
  4. This paragraph appears as a footnote on page 19 of original text.
  5. Appears in the center of the bottom of the page.
  6. appears on top left of page
  7. Appears above the "z" in Frazer's River.
  8. Appears in center bottom of page.
  9. Appears on left margin by Frazer's River.
  10. Appears in center bottom of page.
  11. Appears in center bottom.
  12. Appears in mid-upper left margin.
  13. Appears in center bottom of page.
  14. Appears in center bottom of page.
  15. Appears in center bottom of page.
  16. Appears in center bottom of page.
  17. Appears in center bottom of page.
  18. Appears top left side of page.
  19. Appears middle left of page.
  20. Appears in center bottom of page.
People in this document

Anderson, Alexander Caulfield

Casey, Silas

Douglas, James

Gasden

Haller, Major

Hicks, Richard

McMullen, Fayette

Perrier, George

Prevost, James Charles

Stanley, Edward Henry

Steptoe, Edward

Waddington, H.

Wynders

Places in this document

Anderson River

Athabasca River

Bonaparte River

Campement-du-Chevreuil

Cascade Mountains

Columbia River

Columbia Valley

Coquihalla River

Fort Hope

Fort Langley

Fraser River

Grande Coulee

Gulf of Georgia

Hill's Bar

Kamloops

Ke-que-loose

Lytton

Munson's Mountain

Nachess Pass

New Caledonia

Nica-o-meen

Nicholas River

Nicola Lake

Okanagan

Okanagan River

Olympia

Oregon Territory, or Columbia District

Port Douglas

Portland

Priest's Rapids

Puget Sound

Rat Lake

Red-Earth Stream

Riviere a la Grise

Rocher de la Biche

Sierra Nevada

Simcoe Valley

Similkameen River

Similkameen Valley

Snake River

Spuzzum

Tchae-tse-sum River

The Dalles

The Falls

Thlik-um-chee-na

Thompson Region

Thompson River

Tuckkwiowhum

Vancouver Island

Victoria

Walla Walla

Washington Territory

Yakima River

Yakima Valley

Yale

Douglas, James to Stanley, Edward Henry 15 June 1858, CO 60:1, no. 7830, 54. The Colonial Despatches of Vancouver Island and British Columbia 1846-1871, Edition 2.2, ed. James Hendrickson and the Colonial Despatches project. Victoria, B.C.: University of Victoria. https://bcgenesis.uvic.ca/V58026.html.

Last modified: 2020-12-02 13:40:34 -0800 (Wed, 02 Dec 2020) (SVN revision: 5008)