No. 34
19 August 1858
My Lord,
I herewith transmit copy of a letter which I have lately received by Her Majesty's ship "Calypso"1 under the command of Captain Montresor, from Rear Admiral Baines in reply to my communication to him, of the 12th of May last, of which a copy was transmitted with my despatches to your Lordship; informing Admiral Baines of the large immigration of foreigners into this country and er'sRiverManuscript image River, and urgently recommending that the Naval Forces employed on this coast should be increased, with the view of protecting life and property, and maintaining the supremacy of the laws.
2. I infer from Admiral Baine's letter that he cannot furnish any additional force; neither does it appear from his letter that he entertains any hopes of being able to aid or assist in protecting the country; so that I am left to depend upon the casual aid received from the "Satellite" and "Plumper";2 whose excellent Commanders Captain's Prevost and Richards, have merited my warmest thanks, for theircordialManuscript image cordial and zealous co-operation, in all the protective measures, adopted by this Government.
3. The settlements on the sea board require no other protection than those ships can afford; but a force is wanted for the service of the interior, which can be spared neither from the "Satellite" nor "Plumper", both being here on special service, the latter on the coast survey, and the former for the objects of the Boundary Commission.
4. There are now about 10,000 foreign miners, in Fraser's River, and upwards of 3000 of that number are profitably engaged in gold mining.
I have appointed sub CommissionerstoManuscript image to mark out the mining claims, and to receive the duty of 21/ a month payable on each claim. Those officers require support, and the miners demand protection, while I have not a single man to detach to either of their assistance.
5. The affairs of Government might be carried on smoothly with even a single company of infantry, but, at present, I must under Providence, depend in a great measure on personal influence and management; a position inconsistent with the dignity of the Queen's Government.
6. I therefore trust that you will take our case intoconsiderationManuscript image consideration and direct such reinforcements to be sent to this country as Her Majesty's Government may deem necessary.
7. My opinion of the value and extent of the gold region has undergone no change for the worse, since I addressed you on the 10th of June last, and there is every prospect, under proper management, that the country will produce a large revenue for the Crown.
8. We have commenced the work of improving the internal communications of the country, as referred to in the 17th Paragraph of my Despatch No 31 of the 26th ofJulyManuscript image July last; a party of 500 men being now engaged in opening a road into upper Fraser's River by the valley of Harrison's River.
9. A stern wheel steam vessel3 is now running to the upper extremity of Harrison's Lake, from whence we have commenced cutting a road through the forest on the left bank of Harrison's River and Lillooet Lake to connect Anderson's with Harrison's Lake, the total distance between those two points being about 80 miles of land carriage over a generally level country.
10. The men employed in that important enterprise are gold miners, composed of many nations,BritishManuscript image British subjects, Americans, French, Germans, Danes, Africans and Chinese who volunteered their services immediately on our wish to open a practicable route into the interior of the Fraser's River District being made known to the Public. They moreover proffered their services, on terms, so peculiar in themselves and so advantageous for the country, that it would have been unwise of me to decline them. Each man, for example, on being enrolled into the corps, paid into our hands; the sum of 25 dollars, as security for good conduct. They receive no remuneration in the form of pay, the Government having merely tosupplyManuscript image supply them with food while employed on the road, and to transport them free of expense, to the commencement of the road on Harrison's Lake; where the money deposit of 25 dollars is to be repaid to them in provisions, at Victoria prices, when the road is finished; the cost of the work will therefore not be heavy, nor exceed our means of repayment out of the revenues of the Gold District.
11. The organization of the Corps is simple, yet effective, it being divided into 20 companies of 25 men, and each company under the command of a Captain who carries all orders into effect, reports to the Commander of the Corps, and draws upon theCommissaryManuscript image Commissary the weekly supplies of food.
An Engineer with guides and Indians acquainted with the country, blazes the trees; and marks out the road in advance of the main body.
12. I have lately received the most cheering accounts of the progress of the party, who were working assiduously and had then cut through about 16 miles from the commencement of the road on Harrison's Lake, and will I trust carry it through with the same degree of spirit as they now exhibit.
13. The accompanying map4 of the country will more clearly show the direction of the road and its connection with Fraser's River beyondtheManuscript image the coast range of mountains.
14. That route will be of the greatest advantage to the Country, and when opened will form the commercial highway into the interior Districts, there being little probability of the existence of any other practicable route from the sea coast.
15. A direct route from the head of Jarvis' Inlet (see Map) to the Lillooet Lake, is supposed to exist, and will be explored as soon as the mass of business, now on my hands, is disposed of. 5
I have etc.
James Douglas
Minutes by CO staff
Manuscript image
Mr Elliot
This is an interesting despatch—and speaks well for Governor Douglas' management of his miscellaneous population.
With reference to his appeal for Military and Naval aid, he has been informed of the departure of the Royal Engineers, 6 and the Admiralty have told us that Admiral Baynes is about to proceed to V.C. Island.
Acknowledge and inform the Governor of the intended visit of the Admiral.
HTI 11 Oct
Answer as proposed by Mr Irving?
TFE 11 Oct
Documents enclosed with the main document (not transcribed)
Manuscript image
Baynes to Douglas, HMS Ganges 7 at Callao, 28 June 1858, advising a copy of Douglas's letter of 12 May had been forwarded to the Admiralty.
Minutes by CO staff
Manuscript image
Write in reply that two detachments of 24 ? and 12 ? men respectively have left for the Colony of B. Columbia—that the Thames City8 has sailed with 119 ? men on board & that the Briseis 9 will follow within the next two days with the stores &c belonging to the expedition. That probably there will be a few more men with their families & some additional stores wh will be sent on by the Euphrates10 wh will sail in about a month's time—& that meanwhile Col. Moody will start by the W. IndianManuscript image Packet of the 30th.
Then state the different office[r]s who have been appointed and whether & when they left England—and the probably arrival of Admiral Baynes.
That Sir E. Lytton is aware that this is not a very large force—that it is less than he cd have wished in one point of view—but that he believes that they will be sufficient with the local resources wh are available to strengthen the hands of the Govr and to give him the power of effectually organizing all that is essential to the maintenance of Law & Order.
That Sir E. Lytton has seen withManuscript image very great satisfaction the ability, the resource, and tact & conciliation wh Govr Douglas has displayed under circumstances so difficult & unexpected as to task the highest powers of administration. That Sir E. Lytton doubts not that he will continue to show the same vigour & discretion and that he may rely with confidence upon the support & assistance of H.M. Govt.
Lastly credit might be given to him on the skill wh he has evinced in organizing a corps of pioneers to open up the country, as explained in this desp., and the orderly and satisfactory conduct of the miners.
I wd recommend some such desp. because I think that as yet we have abstained from praising and that nowManuscript image we ought in justice to Govr Douglas to give him credit for great capacity under trying circumstances. Approval especially when discriminately given is not only just in his case but is good policy.
C Oct 12
The two Minutes of Sir Edward, now in my hands, afford the materials for the necessary ansr to this despatch, and in them are comprized your own views as expressed above. These minutes, most full and comprehensive, leave, I really think nothing to add; but if anything should occur to me as having been omitted, I will not fail to repair the omission.
I think that it would be best to mention the fact of the endowment of the Bishopric by Miss B. Coutts in a separate despatch. 11 It is a circe which is entitled to special admiration & gratitude. It should stand alone. What do you say to sending the Govr a copy of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Letter, 12 & Sir Edd's answer? The correspondence would then, probably appear before Parlt. By the way has Sir Edward yet informed the Queen of Miss Coutts' munificence? This point has, I have little doubt, not escaped his attention; only to guard,thereforeManuscript image therefore, against an oversight, do I enquire.
As we have not a minute to lose in the preparation of these drafts, which must receive Sir Edward's approval tomorrow, I will thank you to return this despatch to me at your earliest convenience.
ABd 14 Octr
EBL Oct 15
Manuscript image
Sir E. Lyttons First Minute to Mr Blackwood
To Govr Douglas
I wish to explain that part of my last despatch which related to the supply of military force for the Collection of revenue in B. Columbia. The employment of an armed force for the purpose of obtaining Mining licence fees or customs dues would in itself be undesirable, and frought with danger even in a population more submissive than is likely to flock to B. Columbia—but in this instance, we have expressly to consider the imminent probability that ordinary soldiers exposed to constant temptation would desert to the diggings, & thus rather add by the example of their own insubordination to those who defy rather than assist you in enforcing the law; for while an Adequate revenue is not yet actively raised, wouldManuscript image it be fair to impose upon the infant Colony the burthen of a larger Sum than is absolutely necessary in the way of extra Colonial pay—a burthen which nevertheless the policy of offering a remuneration that wd in some degree counteract the temptation to desert, would render unavoidable.
I think it of extreme importance to the social peace of this Colony that the Emigration [?] should, at the onset, be impressed with the necessity of providing for the security of their own lives & property & for the maintenance of that order which is the common interest of all, by the establishment of an adequate police, & a sufficient staff of Stipendiary Magistrates.
For this purpose I have sent to you the most experienced & trustworthy person I could select amongst the Irish Constabulary—(a body of menManuscript image peculiarly distinquished for competence) 13 to serve as Inspector of the Police, & to carry out your instructions for the formation of a civil force of that character.
At the same time, I have not been unmindful of the importance of making it clearly understood by the adventurers that Great Britain extends the protection of her arms, if needed, to this new part of Her Majestys dominions. Hence the presence of a sufficient naval force in your harbour, I held to be indispensable from the first day, it was resolved to erect British Columbia into a Colony, I urged upon the Lords of the Admiralty the imperative necessity of sending a Naval force to Vancouver, & instructions were given to Admiral Baines [Baynes] to regard the securing of the New Colony as a paramount object. I trust the Admiral himself is already in your harbour, & that you have nothing now to complain of in a suitable Naval demonstration. I will begManuscript image you to report to me by the first mail, which vessels are now in your waters & whether you require more. And while I must earnestly commend to you the wisdom of training the Colonists to provide for their internal safety & for the peaceful obedience to the law by their own ready organization of a police force &, as settlers increase, by Volunteer Corps—yet on the other hand, should you deem a further British military force than that which has been sent, or is on the way to you, essential, & can perceive the means by which it may be kept from desertion & rendered securely serviceable, your wishes will not fail of prompt attention.
The superior intelligence & discipline of the Sappers & Miners, & their capacity at once to cover themselves in a Country without habitation, & the popularity they are likely to obtain by their services asManuscript image engineers in expediting the work of civilization, induced me to select them from amongst Her Majesty's troops, as calculated to be of more effective use in imposing respect upon the population than twice the number of ordinary soldiers.
But besides these, I have sent out, under Col Moody, practical & skilful men for Cavalry & Artil[l]ery drill, who are intended to form a nucleus & framework in the Colony itself for such additional military force as may be required.
Colonel Moody agrees with me in assuming that in a population of gold diggers there will be always eno[ugh] disappointed adventurers in the prime of life, who would enlist at need, under the British flag. And thus, eminent officers being secured, recruits could be raised upon the spot, more rapidly & more economically than military aid could be sent to you from England.
It is my object in short to provide for all unforeseen Exigencies in the Colony according as they arise, butManuscript image on the assumption that the common interest in life & property will induce the emigrants to combine amongst themselves—for ordinary purposes—& when danger needing military force arises will readily gather round and swell the force which will thus expand in proportion as circumstances require. From England we send skill & discipline—the raw material (that is the mere men) a Colony intended for free institutions & on the borders of so powerful a Neighbour as the United States of America, should learn, betimes, of itself to supply.
At the same time, while I request you to keep steadily in view the general principle I have laid down, I repeat that I shall receive with respect the [illegible] of your own practical experienceManuscript image & you may rest assured of such support as the safety & interest of the Colony may actually require.
I have but to urge upon you once more, the expediency of writing to me by every mail, with such information as may guide the measures of the govt & satisfy the eager cabinet which is [anxiously concerned?] in the future of this New Colony.Manuscript image

[Sir E. Lyttons Second Minute]
Govr Douglas/Minute
1st That I hope long ere this date his anxiety with respect to an adequate naval force will be allayed. That even before the Act which constituted B.C. into a Colony had passed, I had urged upon the Lds of the Admiralty the necessity of sending a frigate or Man of War to the preservation of order in the New Colony—that Admiral Baines had been, since the time in which he had replied to Govr D's request, informed that no post on his station was more important than B.C. 14
Quote the exact words in the letter to us from the Admiralty in Department. [EBL]
And that by the last advices 15 I was informed that Ad. Baines would himself leave Cossale 16 for Vancouver the 28th of August in his Flag ship the Ganges& would therefore be at Vancouver long since. That I confidently rely upon the Admiral, according to his instructions, providing for all adequate naval support to thatManuscript image important part of H.M. Dominions. That I request Govr D. to inform me by the next mail what vessels were now in the harbour for the special support of the civil govt & if more naval force was required it should have my immediate attention. That with respect to a military force—I observed with satisfaction that he said the affairs of Govt might be carried on smoothly with even a single Company of Infantry. That I had anticipated his requirements to that extent at the earliest moment—only instead of ordering infantry I had judged it preferable to place at the service of the Colony 150 Sappers & Miners—a force that seemed to me especially suited to the condition of the Country & the service, 1st because they could cover themselves at once in a territory without barracks, 2ndly because from the superior characterManuscript image of the Men, aided by the inducements of high extra Colonial pay, they were the least likely to desert to the Diggings & 3rdly because as they would immediately become instrumental in the work of civilization by the construction of roads and bridges—the foundation of a future city &c—they would probably not only be preserved from the idleness which might corrupt the discipline of ordinary soldiers, but establish themselves in the popular good will of the Emigrants by the civil benefits it would be in the regular nature of their occupation to confer.
I regret that this force has been unavoidably delayed in its departure, notwithstanding the unceasing care & pains I have devoted to the footing of the necessary preparations—but [owing] partly [to] arrangements with the W. office & due care in the selection of officers & men, Manuscript image& principaly the time demanded by the Admiralty & Contracter before the vessells containing the Men & stores were actively on the voyage had occasioned a delay in which I had fully sympathized in his own cause for anxiety. Then state the installment sent via Panama under Capt. Palmers
& observe that by that detachment I had sent his own Commn as Govr having the first day I could get it signed by her M. in Council on her return from the Continent, taken it my self on board the vessell. State the forces & stores by "Thames" & Briseis & Euphrates—as Lord C. proposes. Then add, in the sense of the Minute I gave to Mr Blackwood viz Explain what was meant in the last despatch about a force for the mere collection of revenue—note the distinction I drew between internal disturbance & foreign aggression, &c.Manuscript image
This instruction has been executed in the draft prepared in pursuance of Sir Edward's other Minute. ABd.
You will add to this part, as given to Mr Blackwood, or insert in the midst of it, that we have sent now all the force Govr Douglas says he requires but add that if he needs more soldiers, & will specify the amt & thinks that mere soldiers, especially soldiers of the line can be preserved from desertion, & their Colonial pay defrayed from the Col. Revenues his wishes shall be complied with.
This also has been said in the other draft. ABd.
Observe that in our scanty acquaintance with the nature of the climate in winter, & the inexperience as to the native [?] amount of population which may remain during winter at the Diggings, we are unable to judge what degree of activity in mining operations may prevail during that season, what consequences may be the chanceManuscript image during those winters, of armed frays or collisions & to what extent revenue & Colonization may be then making progress. But we are led to anticipate that in the winter there must be that pause in immigration & its concomitant difficulties which may allow the preliminary settlement of Law—& police—enable him to communicate to us the probable wants & probable resources of the Colony so that when, at the return of Spring, Immigration & activity recommence all suitable preparations may be made, & the safety & development of the Colony ful[l]y & deliberatelyManuscript image provided for.
It will be very essential for this purpose that he should instruct us by the best conjecture that sagacity of which he has given proof so notable may enable him to arrive at—of the probable revenue on which to calculate since in proportion to that revenue must be the rapidity with which we at home can aid in the growth of the Colony.
Refering to the laudable cooperation in the construction of the road which his energy has found in the good sense & public spirit of the Miners, State that I rejoice to see how fully that instance of the zeal & intelligence to be expected from the orderly efforts of immigrants aiding in furtherance of interests common to them all, bears out the principleManuscript image of policy on which I desired to construct a Colony that was intended to perpetuate the great qualities of the Anglo Saxon race—the same characteristics which had made these settlers combine so readily in the construction of a road, would, under the same able & cheering influence which he proved he so well knew how to exercize, cause them equally to unite in the formation of a police, in the establishment of Law, in the collection of revenue in short in all which might make individual life secure, & the community prosperous. I trusted he would assure the hardy & spirited Men who had assisted in this preliminary undertaking how much their conduct was appreciated by H.M. Govt. I begged to add that I had conveyed to the Admiralty my senseManuscript image of the valuable services so effectively rendered by the Satellite & Plumper.
I cannot conclude without a cordial expression of my sympathy in the difficulties you have encountered & of my sense of the ability, the readiness of resource, the wise & manly temper of conciliation with which those difficulties have been encountered & I hope ere this time in a great degree mastered by yourself. I doubt not that you will continue to shew the same vigour & the same discretion in its exercize & you may rely with confidence on whatever support & aid Her M. Govt can afford to you.

Manuscript image My dear C.
I send the draft of a Despatch to Douglas which must be carefully worded, as it will be called for in Parlt.
Do not therefore say you regret not to send more force, on the contrary as I suggest take credit for having anticipated & improved on the exact force he requires. He wants a ship—we have sent the Admls own flag ship. He wants a Compy of Infantry we have sent more than a Compy of Sappers & Miners. Be sure to get my Minute to Blackwood which should be somewhat condensed &Manuscript image its purpose incorporated in this despatch. It embodies the rudimentary policy as to force which cannot be too early made clear to Colonists.
Let me have time to correct the draft of the despatch—either it can be sent express to me (which I shd prefer for I can correct better here) or if desired I will come to town on purpose to correct it.
I engage to have these ready for you and Sir Edward tomorrow for revision; & if even he is at Knebworth he shall have the time he wishes for that purpose. ABd..
[P.S.] What do you wish toManuscript image say about the Bp of Columbia?

Lord Carnarvon
On this last point please observe what I have said on 10342.
ABd 14 Octr
Other documents included in the file
Manuscript image
Draft reply, Lytton to Douglas, No. 30, 16 October 1858 (extensive minutes and revisions).
  1. H.M.S. Calypso, was an 18-gun corvette acquired by the Royal Navy in 1845. It arrived in August, enroute to the Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands. See also Douglas to Stanley, 27 August 1858, No. 35, 10343, CO 60/1, p. 129. Lack of steam power severely curtailed is usefulness as a patrol vessel, requiring it to stand out farther from the entrance to the Fraser River and also seriously reducing the number of hands who could board other vessels because of the need to keep enough men on deck to man the sails in case of emergency. Barry Gough, The Royal Navy, p. 138. The Calypso soon left for Hawaii to guard against Mormons expected to try and take over the islands. EV
  2. H.M.S. Plumper, Capt. George H. Richards, was a 484-ton auxiliary steam sloop with 12 guns and was launched at Portsmouth in 1848 but later converted into a surveying vessel. It arrived at Esquimalt in 1857 to begin a hydrographic survey of the coastal waters. The .Plumper was replaced by H.M.S. Hecate in 1861.
  3. = Umatilla. The Umatilla was a small (110 feet) stern-wheel steamer, built by the firm of Thompson and Coe for service on the upper Columbia River. Originally christened the Venture, it lost power on its maiden voyage and was swept over the the rapids above the Dalles, sustaining considerable damage to its hull. The company of Ainsworth, Leonard and Green bought and repaired the ship, renaming it the Umatilla and sending her to Victoria on 12 July 1858. Capt. John C. Ainsworth, who later became a founding member and then president of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, a powerful monopoly on the upper Columbia, became the first man to reach Yale by steamer, and a few days later made the first run up the Harrison River and to the head of Harrison Lake. The Umatilla remained on the Fraser River for about ten weeks before Ainsworth traded her for another steamer, the .Maria; the Umatilla was then towed to San Francisco. In 1884, the vessel was wrecked near Port Townsend; the cost of repairs was estimated at about $100,000. See Wright, Lewis & Dryden's Marine History, pp. 72-73, 90, n. 17; Gazette; 14, 24, and 28 July, and 5 October 1858; and the British Colonist, 12, 13, and 14 February 1884. For information on Ainsworth, see Dorothy O. Johansen and Charles M. Gates, Empire of the Columbia: A History of the Pacific Northwest (New York Harper & Brothers, 1957).
  4. = Sketch of routes to Fraser. The map has been removed from the file but appears as a Sketch Showing the Different Routes of Communication with the Gold Region on Fraser River; Chiefly Compiled from the Routes of A.C. Anderson Esqr and Mr Mackay, Papers Relative to the Affairs of British Columbia, Part 1, Appendix, following p. 77. Cf. Douglas to Lytton, 3 November 1858, No. 9, 528, CO 60/1, p. 331. GET
  5. = map. The map shows a proposed route starting at the head of Howe Sound, near present-day Squamish, and continuing along the Stchawhan [sic] River to Lillooet Lake and on to Anderson Lake. JEH. According to map he doesn't start from Jervis Inlet at all. Is this the same map as above?? Extract of McKay Journal in Gazette.
  6. The Royal Engineers originated as a corps of Kings Engineers and supply workers employed on the King's fortifications from the time of the Norman conquest in 1066. In 1787 they received the title Royal, becoming the Corps of Royal Engineers, in recognition of their long and distinguished service. The Colonial Office decided to send a detachment of Royal Engineers to assist Douglas in maintaining law and order in the gold fields in July 1858, after considerable deliberation among the Colonial, Foreign, and War offices. After repeated delays, occasioned in part by the incompetence of the commanding officer, Col. Richard Clement Moody, the detachment and their supplies embarked in relays. An advance detachment under Capt. Robert Mann Parsons arrived via Panama on the Panama with 20 men on 29 October 1858, Capt. John Marshall Grant and 12 men arrived at Esquimalt on 8 November 1858, Moody arrived on Christmas Day, and Capt. Henry Reynolds Luard and 121 men came around the Horn on the Thames City, arriving on 12 April 1859. Five more men and ?? tons of stores followed on the Euphrates on 27 June 1859. Although Douglas originally intended to settle the engineers at Fort Langley or Fort Hope, they established their camp instead at Sapperton, next to New Westminster, which Moody recommended as the site of the capital in February 1859. See Douglas to Lytton, 8 November 1858, No. 26, 545, CO 60/1, p. 390 and Douglas to Lytton, 9 November 1858, No. 28, 547, CO 60/1, p. 395, announcing the arrival of Parsons and Grant. The official history of the corps is Whitworth Porter, History of the Corps of Royal Engineers (Chatham: Institute of Royal Engineers, 1951). For a useful but uncritical discussion of the Royal Engineers' activities in British Columbia, see Frances M. Woodward, The Influence of the Royal Engineers on the Development of British Columbia, BC Studies, 24 (Winter 1974-75): 3-51. Cf. Storks to Merivale (Permanent Under-Secretary), 2 October 1858, 10081, CO 60/2, p. 380. Lytton in Derby Papers??
  7. H.M.S. Ganges, Canopus class, 84 guns, 2284 tons, was the flagship of the Pacific Station, Rear-Admiral Baynes. Built in Bombay, India, of teak, in 1821, it was commissioned on 31 May 1823 for service on the Jamaica Station; it served also in the South American, Lisbon, and Mediterranean stations before being recommissioned on 25 June 1857 as the Pacific flagship. The Ganges was the last flagship to sail around Cape Horn without benefit of steam power and arrived in Esquimalt on 17 October 1858. It remained in British Columbia (Pacific Station??) between 1858 and 1860, returning to Falmouth, England, for use as a training ship from 1866 to 1906. .us !In 1906, it was renamed the Tenedos III and became part of the Boy Artificers Establishment at Chatham, England. In 1910, it was moved to Devonport and renamed the Indus V. Renamed again in 1922 as the Impregnable III, it was added to the Training Establishment for Boys at Devonport, before being sold in 1929 and finally broken up. Vancouver Province, 9 March 1930; The Story of H.M.S. 'Ganges', The Shotley Magazine: The Magazine of H.M.S. Ganges (Ipswich: The East Anglian Daily Times Company, 1933), pp. 42-50.
  8. The Thames City, Capt. Glover, 557 tons, was a commercial passenger ship, owned by ?? It brought the main detachment of Royal Engineers to British Columbia, leaving Gravesend on 10 October 1858 and sailing around Cape Horn, arriving in Esquimalt on 12 April 1859. Full name?? Source??
  9. The Briseis burned at sea in 1859; see Land and Works Department Letter Book, 1, 13 April 1859, p. 49. Owner??
  10. On 3 January 1859, the Euphrates embarked for British Columbia with a supply of stores for the Royal Engineers and arrived in Esquimalt on ?? On 23 July 1859 it left again for England with a load of spars. Victoria Gazette, 29 January, 23 July 1859.
  11. = Burdett Coutts endowment. Angela Burdett-Coutts established an endowment of £50,000 to begin a diocese and support a bishop and clergy in British Columbia. See Canterbury, Archbishop of, to Lytton, 27 September 1858, 9880, CO 60/2, p. 606, and entry for Burdett-Coutts in Biographies.
  12. = Burdett Coutts endowment. See Canterbury, Archbishop of, to Lytton, 27 September 1858, 9880, CO 60/2, p. 606.
  13. The Irish Constabulary served as a model for many colonial forces in the nineteenth century. Formed as a civilian police force in 1836 to maintain law and order in Ireland, it resembled a military regiment. Its men lived together in military-type barracks, were armed and trained in military procedures, and were subject to military-type discipline. In 1867, the force was renamed the Royal Irish Constabulary, in recognition of its efforts in combatting the Fenian uprising of that year. The force was dissolved in 1922, the year after the formation of the Irish Free State, and a number of the men reorganized as the Royal Ulster Constabulary. The man selected by Lytton to become the chief inspector of police for BC was Chartres Brew.
  14. = BC most NB in Pacific. FIND AD-CO telling Baynes BC is most important site in Pacific Station.
  15. See Corry to Merivale (Permanent Under-Secretary), 2 October 1858, 10074, CO 60/2, p. 18.
  16. Callao, one of the principal Pacific ports in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is the port city for the capital of Lima, Peru, from which it is located some ten kilometres to the west.
  17. Lytton was in poor health during his time as secretary of state for the colonies, spent much of his time at Knebworth, a baronial castle in Hertfordshire, the Lytton's ancestral country seat and private estate. Located near Severage, north of London, Knebworth House was built as a Tudor mansion in 1492. Lytton inherited the estate from his mother in 1843. Source??
People in this document

Anderson, Alexander Caulfield

Baynes, Robert Lambert

Blackwood, Arthur Johnstone

Brew, Chartres

Burdett-Coutts, Angela Georgina

Carnarvon, Earl

Douglas, James

Elliot, Thomas Frederick

Grant, John Marshall

Irving, Henry Turner

Luard, Henry Reynolds

Lytton, Edward George Earle Bulwer

Montresor, Captain Frederick Byng

Moody, Richard Clement

Parsons, Robert Mann

Prevost, James Charles

Richards, George Henry

Stanley, Edward Henry

Sumner, John Bird

Victoria, Alexandrina

Organizations in this document

Colonial Office

Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty

Vessels in this document


HMS Calypso, 1845-1866


HMS Ganges

HMS Hecate, 1839-1865



HMS Plumper, 1848-1865

HMS Satellite, 1855-1879

Thames City, 1856


Places in this document

Anderson Lake

British Columbia



Columbia River


Fraser River

Fraser River District

Harrison Lake

Harrison River

Hawaiʻian Islands


Howe Sound

Jervis Inlet


Lillooet Lake


New Westminster


Port Townsend

San Francisco



The Dalles

Vancouver Island